Monday, March 30, 2020

Outline labelling theory and consider its usefulness in understanding youth crime and anti-social behaviour in Britain today. Essay Example

Outline labelling theory and consider its usefulness in understanding youth crime and anti-social behaviour in Britain today. Essay Outline labelling theory and see its utility in understanding young person offense and anti-social behavior in Britain today. Labeling theory claims that aberrance and conformance consequences non so much from what people do but from how others respond to those actions, it highlights societal responses to offense and aberrance Macionis and Plummer, ( 2005 ) .Deviant behavior is hence socially constructed. This essay will depict in full the labelling theory and remark on the importance of the theory to the aberrant behavior of the young person and the anti-social behavior of the young person in Britain today. The labelling theory becomes dominant in the early 1960s and the late seventiess when it was used as a sociological theory of offense influential in disputing Orthodox positiveness criminology. The cardinal people to this theory were Becker and Lement.The foundations of this position of aberrance are said to hold been foremost established by Lement, ( 1951 ) and were later developed by Becker, ( 1963 ) .As a affair of fact the labelling theory has later become a dominant paradigm in the account of devience.The symbolic interaction position was highly active in the early foundations of the labelling theory. The labelling theory is constituted by the premise that aberrant behavior is to be seen non merely as the misdemeanor of a norm but as any behavior which is successfully defined or labelled as pervert. Deviance is non the act itself but the response others give to that act which means aberrance is in the eyes of the perceiver. Actually the labelling theory was built on Becker, ( 19 63:9 ) statement that Social groups create aberrance by doing the regulations whose misdemeanor constitute aberrance, and by using those regulations to peculiar people and labelling them as foreigners aberrance is non a quality of the act of a individual commits, but instead a effects of the application by others of regulations and countenances to an offender The pervert is one to whom that label has successfully been applied. We will write a custom essay sample on Outline labelling theory and consider its usefulness in understanding youth crime and anti-social behaviour in Britain today. specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Outline labelling theory and consider its usefulness in understanding youth crime and anti-social behaviour in Britain today. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Outline labelling theory and consider its usefulness in understanding youth crime and anti-social behaviour in Britain today. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Deviant behavior is behaviour that people so label. The manner out is a refusal to dramatise the immorality. The labelling theory connects to great sociological thoughts of Dukheim the symbolic interactionism and the struggle theory. The theory besides draws from the thought of Thomas ( 1928 ) that when people define state of affairss as existent they become existent in their effects. Lement, ( 1951-1972 ) distinguishes aberrance into primary and secondary aberrance in which he described primary aberrance as those small reactions from others which have small consequence on a individual s ego construct and secondary aberrance as when people push a aberrant individual out of their societal circles which leads the individual to be embittered and seek the company of the people who condone his behaviour.Lement farther argued that instead than seeing a offense as taking to command it may be more fruitful to see the procedure as one in which control bureaus structured and even generated offense. Secondary aberrance leads to what Goffman ( 1963 ) pervert calling. This will later leads to stigma which is a powerful negative societal label that radically changes a individual s ego construct and societal individuality. A condemnable prosecution is one manner that an person is labelled in a negative instead than in a positive manner. Stigmatizing people frequently leads to re trospective labelling which is the reading of person s past consistent with the present aberrance Seheff ; ( 1984 ) .Retrospective labelling distorts a individual s life in a damaging manner guided by stigma than any effort to be just. No societal category stands apart from others as being either condemnable or free from criminalism. However harmonizing to assorted sociologists people with less interest in society and their ain hereafter typically exhibit less opposition to some sorts of devience.Labelling theory asks what happens to felons after they have been labelled and suggests that offense may be highlighted by condemnable countenances therefore directing one to prison may assist to outlaw an single further. Stigmatizing immature wrongdoers may really take them into a condemnable calling. Howard S.Becker, ( 1963 ) one of the earlier interaction theoreticians claimed that societal groups create aberrance by doing the regulations whose misdemeanor constitute aberrance and by using those regulations to peculiar people and labelling them as foreigners. Furthermore the labelling theoretical attack to deviance dressed ores on the societal reaction to deviance committed by persons every bit good as the interaction processes taking up to the labelling. The theory therefore suggests that criminology has been given excessively much attending to felons as types of people and deficient attending to the aggregation of societal control responses. That hence means the jurisprudence, the constabulary, the media and the public publications helps to give offense its form. This is supported by the struggle theory which demonstrates how aberrance reflects inequalities and power.This attack holds that the causes of offense may be linked to inequalities of category, race and gender and that who or what is labelled as aberrant depends on the comparative power of classs of people.Cicourel s survey on Juvenile justness in California, ( 1972 ) pointed out that constabulary stereotypes result in black, white category young person being labelled felon. The struggle theory links aberrance to power in the signifier of the norms and the Torahs of most societies which bolster the involvements of the rich and powerful. The labelling theory links deviance non to action but to the reaction of others.The construct of stigma, secondary aberrance and aberrant calling demonstrates how people can integrate the label of aberrance into a permanent self-concept. Political leaders recognises that labelling was a political act for it made them aware on which regulations to implement, what behavior is to see as pervert and which people labelled as foreigners may necessitate political aid Becker, ( 1963-7 ) .Political leaders went on to bring forth a series of empirical surveies refering the beginnings of deviancy definitions through political actions in countries such as drugs statute law, moderation statute law, delinquency definitions, homosexualism, harlotry and erotica. Becker, ( 1963 ) examines the possible effects upon an person after being publically labelled as pervert. A label is non impersonal ; it contains an rating of the individual to whom it is applied. It will go a maestro label in the sense that it colours all the other positions possessed by an person. If one is labelled as a pedophile, condemnable or homosexual it is hard to reject such labels for those labels mostly overrides their original position as parents, worker, neighbour and friend. Others view that individual and respond to him or her in footings of the label and be given to presume that person has the negative features usually associated with such labels. Since an person s ego construct is mostly derived from the responses of others they will be given to see themselves in footings of that label. This may bring forth a ego carry throughing prognostication whereby the aberrant designation becomes the commanding 1. This links to the interactionist attack which emphasizes the im portance of the significances the assorted histrions bring to and develops within the interaction state of affairs. However the labelling theory has its failings which includes Liazos, ( 1972 ) who noted that although the labelling theoreticians aims to humanize the aberrant person and show that he or she is no different than other persons except possibly in footings of chance. It nevertheless by the really accent on the pervert and his individuality jobs and subculture the opposite consequence may hold been achieved. He farther suggested that while sing the more usual mundane types of aberrance such as homosexualism, harlotry and juvenile delinquency the labelling theoreticians have wholly ignored a more unsafe and malevolent types of aberrance which he termed covert institutional force. He pointed out that this type of force leads to such things as poorness and development for illustration the war in Vietnam, unfair revenue enhancement Torahs, racism and sexism. It is questionable whether labelling theoreticians should even try to discourse signifiers of aberrance such as this in the same manner as more platitude single offenses or whether the two should be kept wholly separate being so different in capable affair. Akers, ( 1994 ) besides criticized the labelling theory by indicating out that it fails to explicate why people break the jurisprudence while the bulk conform explicating that people go about minding their ain concern and so wham-bad society comes along and stops them with a stigmatised label. The theory fails to explicate why the moral enterprisers react in the mode described but instead incriminations society and portrays felons as inexperienced person victims which is non ever the instance. To counter for the negative effects of punitory steps to youth offense and anti-social behavior the British authorities introduced the ASBO and ABC which means anti societal behavior orders and acceptable behaviors respectively.ASBO and ABC are recent developments in Britain which were designed to set a halt to anti-social behavior by the person on whom they are imposed.ASBO is a statutory creative activity and it carries legal force where as an ABC is an informal process though non without legal significance. Both types of intercessions are aimed at halting the job behavior instead than penalizing the wrongdoer which may take an single into a aberrant calling. The ABC proved most effectual as a agency of promoting immature grownups, kids and parents to take duty for unacceptable behavior. These steps are being used to better the quality of life for local people by undertaking behaviors such as torment, graffito, condemnable harm and verbal maltreatment without outlawing the wrongdoe r. The offense and upset act ( 1998 ) contains the cardinal elements of labor s new young person justness system which saw the constitution of the young person justness and the restructuring of the non tutelary punishments available to the young person tribunal. The authorities believed that forestalling piquing promotes the public assistance of the single immature wrongdoer and protects the populace. The young person justness board oversees the young person piquing squads which has a figure of functions including measuring the hazard and protective factors in a immature individual s life that relate to their piquing behavior to enable effectual intercessions to be implemented, supplying support to immature people who have been released from the detention into the community and early intercession and preventive work both in criminalism and anti-social behavior. To further cut down the effects of labelling the British authorities is undertaking anti-social behavior and its causes by undertaking household jobs, hapless instruction attainment, unemployment, intoxicant and drug abuse. The most successful intercessions to be implemented where noted to be those that engage the person in altering their ain behavior. This is being done guaranting that an single understands the impact of their behavior to the community whilst offering the necessary support to conform. Rather than labelling and outlawing an single the British authorities came up with effectual advice, councelling and support that enable people who behave anti-Socially to alter their behavior. Perpetrators immature and grownups have issues in their lives that require the aid and support of professional, statutory or voluntary administrations. Issues like money direction and debt, communicating troubles with the household, immature people fighting within the educational or employment because of piquing behavior and victims of domestic force can all profit from available services in Britain today. This essay hence concludes that labelling theory is tremendously influential in directing attending towards the relation and slightly arbitrary nature of dominant definitions of offense and criminalism in Britain. It besides critizes the condemnable justness and the bureaus of societal control for it reflects on the effects of our societal reaction and advocators for alterations in public policy on juvenile justness, renewing justness, de-institutionalisation and communitarian attacks. The powerful penetrations of the labelling theory made the British governments to rethink once more on the tough on offense stance hence the debut of new renewing steps which does non label or outlaw immature wrongdoers. The labelling theory is hence rather utile in understanding that the rise in the yob civilization, gang civilization and hoody civilization in Britain was a consequence of outlawing immature wrongdoers instead than turn toing issues taking the immature into offense and anti-social beha vior. Mentions Berker and Howard, S ( 1963 ) Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of aberrance, New York: free imperativeness Goffman, E ( 1963 ) Stigma: Notes on the direction of spoilt individuality, Prentice-hall Hall, S ( 1978 ) Patroling the crisis, The Macmillan imperativeness LTD Haralambos, M and Holborn ( 1991 ) Sociology subjects and positions, Collins instruction. Macionis, J and Plummer, K ( 2005 ) Sociology a planetary debut, Pearson instruction limited. Taylor et Al, ( 1973 ) the new criminology for a societal theory of devience, Routledge

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Warriors Dont Cry1 essays

Warriors Dont Cry1 essays In the book Warriors Don't Cry by Melba Pattillo Beals, the author describes what her reactions and feelings are to the racial hatred and discrimination she and eight other African-American teenagers received in Little Rock, Arkansas during the desegregation period in 1957. She tells the story of the nine students from the time she turned sixteen years old and began keeping a diary until her final days at Central High School in Little Rock. The story begins by Melba talking about the anger, hatred, and sadness that is brought up upon her first return to Central High for a reunion with her eight other classmates. As she walks through the halls and rooms of the old school, she recalls the horrible acts of violence that were committed by the white students against her and her friends. In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Brown vs. The Board of Education that schools needed to integrate and provide equal education for all people and it was unconstitutional for the state to deny certain citizens this opportunity. Although this decision was a landmark case and meant the schools could no longer deny admission to a child based solely on the color of their skin. By 1957, most schools had began to slowly integrate their students, but those in the deep south were still trying to fight the decision. One of the most widely known instances of this happening was at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. It took the school district three years to work out an integration plan. The board members and faculty didn't like the fact that they were going to have to teach a group of students that were looked down upon and seen as "inferior" to white students. However, after much opposition, a plan was finally proposed. The plan called for the integration to h appen in three phases. First, during the 1957-1958 school year, the senior high school would be integrated, then after completion at the senior high level, the junior high ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Super Sad True Love Story Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Super Sad True Love Story - Essay Example Despite their poverty, Lenny’s parents could afford to laugh at the poor people and could pick up some lessons from the about what failure could mean in America. This view clearly demonstrates that the success of a person in this society is measured by their wealth. Shteyngart (17) brings out another instance to show how the characters in the novel are materialist. He notes that the sculptor planned to impress the un-impressible Eunice Park by bragging of the material things he owns. He tells her that Eunice to stay in his beach house in Pulgia. He further quotes that he is wanted to head a commission in Shanghai where he will get fifty million dollars. The characters in the novel belief that they are not going to die but will live forever when they have material wealth (Shteyngart, 312). In (73) Lenny explains that he had to pay an extra ten dollars each at F train stop to them into the business-class carriage. This shows that characters in the novel are placed in classes acc ording to ones material wealth. These excerpts demonstrate that the characters in the novel are materialistic. The belief that a certain family can be worshipped because it is rich is flawed. Material wealth should not be a measure of the person’s status in the society but what the positive impact they make in the society should count. Material wealth has been used to look down upon other less fortunate people in the society but I do not concur with this belief. Moreover, due to materialistic view of the character one can use wealth to seduce someone who does not love him. I believe that material wealth should not be used as a measure of the person’s status and one should love freely without having to look at what their partner owns. The characters believe that money means everything. In contrast to my normative view, characters in the novel believe that it is fine to engage in sexual relationship with multiple partners. Lenny writes that it is a capital insult not to make love to a naked woman, even when she is related (Shteyngart, 216). This is a clear indication of the way the characters in the novel are obsessed with sex. Moreover, Shteyngart (13) writes that during the last night in Roman, Lenny spent the night with Fabrizia; another woman he had relations with. Lenny believes that Fabrizia likes him because of his because of the way he speaks and since she has not been to bed with a local man. This clearly shows that their sexual relation is not based on love (Shteyngart, 14). In addition, Lenny explains that during a party, Fabrizia and a British filmmaker took time to kiss him in turns. Fabrizia exposes to Lenny her pants and Mediterranean pubic hair (Shteyngart, 17).Lenny (17) confides that he had made love to Fabrizia. Shteyngart (18) writes that during the burial of the sculptor, Lenny was eying Eunice Park and wanted to reach out to her and touch her nipples. In the novel we learn that the American sculptor had during the last party m anaged to have sex with a cousin of Fabrizia who was only nineteen years as noted by (Shteyngart, 17). . Lenny explains had this happened in Roman; this would have become breaking news. Shteyngart (216) writes that Tomas had sex with many attractive ladies from Czech and after sometimes, Tomas’

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Study skills Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Study skills - Essay Example The leading areas of focus include: Economic development and wealth creation. Social development. Environmental development. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Generally, the main concern that necessitates the upgrade of modern cities is the need to accommodate the ever-growing population especially around the bigger cities. One of the causes for this increase is the rapid rural-urban migration. The main cause for this migration is the pursuit for job opportunities and better housing facilities among others. There is a need to upgrade the existing social amenities to match this rate of migration in order to avert the major social problems that are associated with any unprecedented rise in population. London has been on the fore front in ensuring that the general infrastructure of the city is developed to ensure that the city retains its global position despite the sudden rise in urban dwellers. The other reason for the upgrade is to address recent global areas of concerns associated with the urban ar eas, top among them being the global warming menace. Most authorities have realized that the current global race towards industrialization has led to an upsurge in environmental degradation in levels never seen in the recent past. Keywords: urbanization, global warming, infrastructure, energy, renewable energy, sustainability, waste management. Introduction There has been a high motivation to improve on the development of London over the recent years. The Greater London Authority (GLA) is an authority whose role is to seek development in a brighter future for London. GLA is made up of members such as the Mayor, London Assembly, and staff. Other functionalities existing include London Development Agency, Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport and London Fire and Emergency authority. Therefore, the report seeks to expound on environmental improvement in London Powers and Responsibilities of the GLA and the Mayor: The Mayor of London is a very important figure as he sets the strategy used to focus on development, procedures to be used as well as the policies to be followed to realise the vision of making London the biggest and best city or choice of destination in the world. This involves the areas described above such as economic development and wealth creation, social development and finally environmental development. The work of strategizing the London vision is a responsibility of London’s Mayor. The mayor comes up with the best strategies that will be used to implement and fulfil the vision for the future. The Mayor of London also seeks to establish working relationships with key parties such as organisations. This will see to it that essential lines that will enable London to move easily to the strategized vision for its future can be drawn. According to the Mayor of London, Johnson Boris insists that he wants to bring about the changes that most Londoners have always aspired. Some of these changes include remodelling the general outlook of London so that it reflects a cleaner city with safer streets. There is also a need to introduce modern transport system as well a state-of-the art housing facilities. This will play a crucial part in attracting local, as well as foreign visitors to this great city. The Mayor of Lond

Monday, January 27, 2020

Impact of Culture on Identity

Impact of Culture on Identity How does the culture we are born into effect the kind of person we become? Culture plays an integral part in an individual’s life. Various aspects of life are governed and influenced by the culture including the social behavior, norms, and the influence over the judgment and decisions. I particularly believe that culture is a prominent aspect of life and subsequently has to do with the kind of person we become in our life. The testimonies to the influence of culture in one’s life is apparent by some aspects as follow, the culture to which a person belongs has a strong influence over his thoughts and ideologies, the culture manifests his ability and potential of the work he does, the culture reflects his social behavior and the way he responds to various predicaments. On the surface, it shapes our life and our vision for how we look at the world. Culture is dynamic it keeps changing, its surface appearance is deceptive, what you see on the surface isn’t necessarily what is under it. Therefore to determine the effect of culture on an indi vidual is often complicated and there are some implications which are to be accepted without questioning, that is to say the effect of culture on people vary and affects us vividly. However, I am going to fret that it affects us in a positive manner. The culture has a strong influence over our thinking, ideologies and understanding. As thinking is one of those aspects that keeps vacillating and growing with in us, shaping our life every time we learn something new. And the culture is one of those attribute which helps in augmentation of our cogitation. Some of the culture which observe open-mindedness are often more likely to grow and develop faster than the others who observe conservativeness. This model of thinking will ultimately affect the development of an individual, hence the one with open-mindedness will grow faster, and this is apparent by taking the example of USA’s and Vietnamese culture. The one who belongs to an open-minded culture will always be ready to take risks and accept the opportunities he is provided with, because such aspects are deeply etched in their culture and resultantly would be exhibited in the individual [1]. So by taking example of two contrasting nations like Vietnam and USA one can witness the force and potent of culture, that how it shapes the lives of the living entities residing within it. In the novel â€Å"Fallen Angels† the protagonist-Perry makes a statement that, â€Å"We were supposed to smile a lot and treat the people with dignity. They were supposed to think we were the good guys. That bothered me a little. I didn’t like having to convince anybody that I was the good guy. . . . We, the Americans, were the good guys.† (Page 112 Fallen angels, Walter Dean Myers)[2].This statement shows the thinking of Perry which has been influenced by his culture, making him think that they were the good guys, just because they were helping others for their own independence. But they failed to see the other side of it and the repercussions it would bring. That is to say â€Å"we only see and understand what our culture teaches us†. Educational phase is an important stage of life, and sometimes it can be linked with some aspects of culture. Some cultures are often considered to be more superlative when it comes to intelligence and understanding of its students. Some of which are indeed in reality, while some aren’t, but relying on such generalized and over-simplistic ideas is dangerous. But if viewed from my point of view, the effects are positive. That is to say, if a person represents a culture where intelligence and understanding are the aspects embedded in them, in a culture where education is considered to be an important aspect and is meant to be achieved, then the student would be of greater knowledge and understanding in the end, which would eventually help him in becoming a better person in life. This aspect of intelligence is either governed by the genetic inheritance or the surrounding environment prevailing the society, an alluding outcome of the culture. Furthermore, sometimes when others don’t meet the boundaries of expectations and anticipations set by us, developed through the thinking we gaine d by our cultural understanding, we often consider that as cue that either we are different or they. As we can see from the above mentioned examples how the thinking is influenced by the culture surrounding us and resultantly and ultimately affects the kind of person we become in future. Secondly, the cultural values manifests how we deal or respond to the conflict or harmony that is omnipresent around us and also how it shapes our understanding about them. In the novel â€Å"Fallen Angels† Perry had to go through many phases of exasperation and intimidation, but every time he seemed to be responding each situation differently. When he was in hamlet on pacification, he encountered a Vietcong who was trying to shoot him but he couldn’t because his rifle wasn’t working, Perry stood petrified wondering what to do, but finally it dawned upon him that in order to save himself he had to shoot him. At first he wasn’t ready to shoot the Vietcong because he viewed war as â€Å"immoral and senseless killing of people†. But he responded according to the requirement of the predicament that is he finally killed the Vietcong. I surmise that, indirectly his response towards Vietcong was influenced by his cultural values. Explicitly stating, the cu lture had taught him how to respond to each situation, that â€Å"it’s not always about responding in a perfect way, but rather responding in a manner the predicament requires and deserves†. In addition, after doing the research on culture of other country (Vietnam) and understanding them through a different perspective, I have also developed a sense of understanding and a respect for their cultural values and how it has transformed them in spite of their ignorance toward knowledge. Considering my response towards their culture as an example in itself, it can be made apparent that my response isn’t an instinctive one but rather an acquired one, because â€Å"that’s the way I was brought up, to see the goodness in others neglecting the indecency that occurs in it simultaneously†. The origin of the response can be deeply rooted in my culture itself as it has nothing to do regarding my knowledge itself. Furthermore, in â€Å"Hamlet† by William Shakespeare, Hamlet is confronted by the ghost of his father, asking him to avenge his death. The audience of that time had accepted the event unquestioningly, the question was not whether the ghost really existed or not, but perhaps was it actually the king or a wicked soul masqueraded. But if a similar scene were to be placed in front of the audience of present time they would be reluctant to accept the ideas regarding the ghost, on the contrary they would disregard the originality and seriousness of work. This won’t be considered as an outcome of evolution in the human minds, but perhaps a development in the cultural teachings and understandings, for how we have been brought up to respond to or view such events. So this were the some form of the illustrations, for how cultures trains our reaction to respond to a conflict, not necessarily conflict but rather our response towards the happenings in our surrounding . And lastly, culture is also an important body controlling the manifestation of our social behavior, etiquettes, attitude and the potential of an individual to strive or work for something. Learned behavior is the foundation of human cultures and the transmission of this behavior ultimately powers the wheel of development of human culture. Human behavior produces cumulative changes in the society, and the constantly changing society requires constant behavior adjustments. Simply stating our demeanor and attitude are neither static or nor deterministic, it chiefly depends on the changes in the culture. In an interview conducted in Canada, a Chinese elder man pointed out that he hasn’t experienced any conflict since the last 40 years of his life [*]. Among one of the possible reason for his denial, one would be seeing the cultural preferences and differences in society through lens of harmony and mutual respects for others, which is the result of his Confucian upbringing. This at titude and perception of the Chinese was eventually a result of his cultural values, which helped him in becoming a wise and knowledgeable person in his life. His culture had taught him about the attitude he should have towards his own culture as well as for the other cultures. Now to demonstrate the influence of surrounding culture on our disposition, let’s take an instance of culture of Vietnam and India, if a boy was born in a Vietnamese family but his upbringing allegedly happened to be in Indian family, than the boy rather than getting accustomed to social behavior and etiquettes of Vietnam would tend to get accustomed to that of Indians. And fundamentally would demonstrate the attitude and disposition of a typical Indian. So the point of my insistence is that our surrounding culture demonstrates the way we would behave and how our attitude would tend to be. Now rather than using chop-sticks while eating, he would insist upon using his hands to do the same activity. And while greeting people instead of bowing and handshaking he would do Namaste (a gesture formed by joining two hands and bringing them down to chest). Now, an illustration of influence over our potential or our ability to strive for something. In Indian culture, the â€Å"sants† [3] (a person who attains the highest state of enlightenment by meditation and worshipping god) are considered to be an exponent of the Indian cultural values. They only strive for achieving salvation in their life, regardless of how tempting objects you place in front of them, they don’t develop desire for them. Consequently if there is no desire in the mind, they won’t be worried about it and also if any desire arises they won’t feel ease without shunning it. My point of emphasizing the idea is that that their commitment towards their works is so determined that they would never deviate from their path. The aspects of their potential and that of their outstriven ability are an exa mple in itself, if viewed from my point of view. In no other culture in world, would you find such adamant people. Their deterministic demeanor is a result of the cultural values. Again taking the culture of Vietnam and USA as a point of justification, in Vietnam children are encouraged to solve math problems mentally rather than using the calculators, but they do not consider this as a sacrifice and also their education system emphasizes more on morality rather than independent thinking. On the contrary, the Americans try to make their life as easy as possible by using technology. Also their education system emphasizes more on independent thinking rather than morality. So the inference which could be drawn from this happening is that both the culture are approaching the same work, but they have two distinct ways to achieve and strive for it. In conclusion, it is obvious by now that the way of life a person would live in future is derived chiefly from the cultural values and aspects of the specific group he belongs to. The three specific reasons I used for justification of my thesis are as follow, firstly the culture has strong influence on our ideologies and thinking, in a broader sense we as a person are an outcome of our thinking and ideologies. Secondly, culture demonstrates our way of responding to various conflicts and harmony prevailing in the society, dealing with conflicts is an important dimension of life and eventually and indirectly our response generated towards it is determined by the culture we are influenced by or born into. And lastly culture is the primarily body, that demonstrates our disposition, attitude and the potential and ability to strive or work for something. Just like economy and country, culture is also one of the most important dimension of our life. Cultures are not just about traditions, f ood customs, languages, dress etc. but perhaps, it has a broader horizon than the literary context, which requires a great deal of understanding and contemplation as a whole. Cultures are like underground rivers flowing within our lives, which gives us messages and teachings, shaping our perception, judgments, attribution and ideas for self as well as others. â€Å"We as a whole are inseparable from culture†. Work cited: *Lebaron: Mediation and Multicultural Reality.Lebaron: Mediation and Multicultural Reality. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 201 LeBaron, Michelle. Culture and Conflict.Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: July 2003 . Cultural Influences and Education.Cultural Influences and Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2015. How Cultural Differences May Affect Student Performance.GreatSchools. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2015. Myers, Walter Dean.  Fallen Angels. New York: Scholastic, 1988. Print Shakespeare, William, and David M. Bevington.Hamlet. Toronto: Bantam, 1988. Print. From what I have experienced and understood in my life about different culture. The novel I had chosen for my culminating task. The ideas explained in the holy book of Indians â€Å"Vachanamrut† Note: while writing the essay I had to make certain implications, and also I used my experience as point of justification in certain matter.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Maya Angelou’s “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” Essay

Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings chronicles the early years of the author’s life – up to age seventeen. In the book, Angelou poetically describes the phenomenon that is growing up black, in the south, in the time before and during World War II. I believe that you are expected to interpret this as a memoir of overcoming the odds. I believe that you are expected to regard the happenings of this book with feelings of empathy and/or sympathy. You are also supposed to marvel at the way Angelou persevered to become the woman (and writer) she is today. At the end of the prologue, Angelou states that, â€Å"If growing up is painful for the Southern Black girl, being aware of her displacement is the rust on the razor that threatens the throat.† (4) The razor to the throat is symbolic of authority. To a Southern black girl in the 1930’s and 40’s, authority is almost everyone. Young black female was the absolute bottom of the barrel. She must let herself be ruled by all sorts. Older black kids, black adults, and anyone white. Likewise, these people are ready to pounce on her should she do the least little thing wrong. Everyone was reprimanded for one thing or another as a child. No one enjoyed it. Imagine being surrounded by people, just waiting for you to slip up so that they can yell at you, punish you, etcetera. Through this, Angelou gaines your sypathy, and you may very well find yourself in awe that Angelou made it through such a childhood with her sanity intact. When a young Maya Angelou’s grandmother tried to take her to a white dentist who owed her a favor, the dentist said, â€Å"‘Annie, my policy is I’d rather stick my hand in a dog’s mouth than a nigger’s.'† (189) This adds upon the point made earlier. The pain of a toothache combined with the pain of wounded pride. Maya Angelou has massive amounts of pride. She spent most of her years in Stamps, Georgia being insulted by one thing or another. Some of the occasions were insulting (the dentist), while some others were the product of reading too deeply into something, like when a white politician came to speak at her graduation. He spoke of how much new equipment the white school was getting, and how the black community would not be forgotten. Here, her pride was injured because of the way the politician  spoke, like their school came second when in fact, in that time and place, they did come second, and the politician did not mean anything negat ive; he was simply being honest. To have your pride assaulted day in and day out is a horrible way to live. Maya’s brother did not return home once after attending the movies. When they found him, â€Å"Bailey was talking so fast he forgot to stutter, he forgot to scratch his head and clean his fingernails with his teeth. He was away in a mystery, locked in the enigma that young Southern Black boys start to unravel, try to unravel, from seven years old to death. The humorless puzzle of inequality and death.† (198) All children learn about death eventually. They have to. Death is a part of life. But imagine living where your death is regarded as a burden on society relieved, as opposed to the tragedy that it would be. It makes you wonder why you are viewed as so low, and it makes you wonder if those people who view you as such are correct. â€Å"I was given blood tests, aptitude tests, physical coordination tests, and Rosarchs, then on a blissful day I was hired as the first Negro on the San Francisco streetcars.† (270) Triumph! Angelou somehow managed to overcome all of society’s efforts to hold her back. Such an accomplishment, though little-remembered today, was a great thing back them. Many little wins like that contributed to winning the equality of today. â€Å"What happened to the moonlight-on-the-prairie feeling? Was there something wrong with me that I couldn’t share a sensation that made poets gush rhyme after rhyme, that made Richard Arlen brave the Arctic wastes and Veronica Lake betray the entire free world? . . . . â€Å"Three weeks later, having thought very little about that strange and strangely empty night, I found myself pregnant.† (283-284) Angelou did not completely understand the connection between sex and love. This in itself is proof of the way she grew up – almost like everyone held her at arm’s length. Her didn’t (or I imagine she didn’t) think that she was old enough to know these things, and even if she was old enough, her grandmother was too old fashioned to adequately explain it. By the time she moved in with  her mother, she was past the age that modern kids learn these things. Maybe her mother figured she already knew this stuff, or maybe she figured that anything her daughter needed to know, she would ask her. But needless to say, one would be hesitant to ask their mother about such a touchy subject. Angelou did not even want to tell her mother that she was pregnant. This unfortunate situation is not exclusive to minorities, but was and still is very common. It occurs less frequently now, that one makes a sexual mistake out of ignorance, due to people being more open about such topics. The fact that the baby is delivered healthily, despite the fact that she was the only one in the area who knew about it for the first eight months of the pregnancy is amazing. It makes you think about how lucky she is. And she is very lucky. Maya Angelou’s accomplishments are pretty amazing. All of the things she had to overcome to become until she acheived the ultimate goal – equality, and perhaps normalcy. When one is possessed of a childhood such as hers, normalcy may be a thing to strive for, and a thing to cherish once experienced. Indeed, she surpassed the point of normalcy to reach the opposite point from where she started. She went from being someone who was barely noticed, and when she was noticed, regarded with contempt, to one who is admired and revered for her work.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Effective Education Web Site Essay

The rapid development of the internet has made it into one of the greatest tools of learning for many individuals in the academic environment. Even students still in primary and secondary education have become highly dependent on the services provided over the World Wide Web. What libraries and tutorial programs used to be for the older generation, the computer and on-line sites have become for the younger generation. The qualities of an effective education web site for primary and secondary schools thus needs to be assessed. Cook & Dupras (2004) state that an educational websites effectiveness lie in its ability to answer specific needs and goals for the student. This means that the website needs not only to be user-friendly and easily navigable but it also needs to be content-oriented. There should be a specific task for the website and all possible media that can fulfill this task should be incorporated in the site’s design. For example, if the site aims to teach the basic principles of arithmetic, different elements can be mixed together to reach this aim – a step-by-step tutorial, examples, sample problems, quizzes, and even games. An effective education website needs to encourage active learning especially if it is for primary and secondary schools. (Cook & Dupras, 2004) This can be done by allowing self-assessment, learner interaction, feedback and even self-directed learning. The website itself should be made accessible, user-friendly, and should have templates that encourage the student to study. Colorful pages, interactive images, and regularly updated content all perform the said task. Educational websites may well be the classrooms of the future. As such, more research need to be conducted in order to better understand the dynamics that would allow optimum learning from the sites. Reference Cook, D. A. , and Dupras, D. M. (2004). A practical guide to developing effective web-based learning. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19(6), 698-707.